For the first time, a survey of cultural practices has been conducted in overseas territories, just before the global pandemic. Published last October, this study analyzes in detail the cultural customs of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyana, Mayotte and Reunion.
Do you want to speak Creole or French? Going to the cinema or watching a movie from home? Get information on social networks or via TV channels? In overseas France, cultural customs and practices sometimes differ from those in France. In collaboration with the Department of Studies, Forecasting, Statistics and Documentation (DEPS), the National Institute of Statistics and Statistics conducted a survey on the cultural habits of residents abroad. This survey combines a detailed analysis of these practices and also allows for the observation of cultural behaviours.
“This is the first time this survey has been extended in DOM-TOM,” he said. Comments by Antonin Crégneau, Insi Antilles-Guyanese researcher who co-conducted the survey. “It was implemented in 2018-2019, just before the health crisis., also defines an INSEE specialist. At least 1,000 people aged 15 and over were surveyed in each of the regions (GuadeloupeAnd the MartiniqueAnd the GuyanaAnd the the meeting And the Mayotte).
Throughout the foreign departments, Creole is still used regularly to communicate. Nine out of ten Martinique islands They said they had mastered Martinica Creole, meaning they were able to express themselves orally. 71% of them speak it in everyday life, whether at home, at work or with friends. in a Guadeloupe73% of the population speaks Guadeloupe Creole on a daily basis.
Overall, the practice of Creole remains more firmly established among those aged 60 and over, even if it is used more frequently by younger generations: 72% of people aged 15-39 speak it on a daily basis in Martinique69% in Guadeloupe.
“There are a lot of similarities in the West Indies with regard to Creole usage when you look at the results. The only difference is information habits: more Guadeloupe people get information in Creole than Martiniques.”Explains Antonin Creneau. In fact, 54% of Guadeloupe having information in creole compared to 26% of Martinican.
Carnival and Chant Noel are also an integral part of Caribbean culture, where Creoles are honored. Almost half Guadeloupe Share in Chanté Nwel, compared to 38% in Martinique. In addition, music is at the heart of West Indian cultural practices: three-quarters Guadeloupe Listen to music every day as well Six out of ten Martinique islands.
on an island the meetingReunionese Creole also enjoys a central place thanks to its music. 81% of Reunionies People aged 15 and over reported language proficiency and 82% listened to music in Reunion Creole or Muscarine musical styles (Sega, Malluya, etc.). “Because Creole is used so frequently, music can be heard more easily”Djamel Mekkaoui, project manager of the study department of INSI Reunion-Maiot, explains in this questionnaire. “The musical styles of the Mascarene family are a strong marker of the region.”
Almost half Reunionies Watch television in Reunionese Creole, but only a minority get their news in Creole.
In addition to French, about forty languages are spoken in French Guiana. Many creoles coexist, but also Portuguese, the languages of the communities of the descendants of the black maroons, the Amerindian languages … One in five Guyanese Guyanese creole language is spoken in everyday life and One in ten Guyanese Haitian Creole. Portuguese is spoken by 10% of the population.
“Linguistic diversity is more diverse in Guyana, because there is a lot of migration. And it’s more widespread in deeper Guyana,” Adds Antonin Crenio. This linguistic richness is found in the cultural practices of Guyana, and sometimes it can act as a brake, notes the specialist: “This diversity can cause difficulties, such as accessing public services for example, or accessing literature. Part of the population reads only one language.”
to me MayotteAnd Shimaore and Kibushi are the languages most spoken by the population. 81% of Mahorais said they were proficient in at least one of these languages (75% for Shimaoré, 18% for Kibushi). French is less prevalent on the island, only 55% of Mayotte’s population declared proficiency, especially young people, graduates and French born outside the 101e Section, Sections. “The French language is understood by all the inhabitants of the Overseas Territories, which is not the case in Mayotte. This is linked to its history and the issue of migration flows”Adds Jamal Makkawi.
Attendances in museums, theaters and cinemas are still lower than in France. The cultural offer is often less developed there: in Martinique For example, 200 films are shown in theaters each year as opposed to 700 films Hexagonal France. And sometimes, that supply available doesn’t necessarily match up with the expectations of the residents.
Over a year, 43% of Martinican 40% went to the cinema Guadeloupe38% in Guyana44% to the meetingcompared to 62% in Hexagonal France. to me Mayottethe numbers are even lower: less than one in ten Mahoris went to the movies, 4% went to a museum, and 2% attended a show in a theatre.
“Mayotte is really separate. The strong marks of this region lie more in the elements of dance, song or music, with the diba, the chigoma and the halili”.
However, film consumption appears to be one of the main cultural practices in ultramarines. except Guyana and l MayotteGiven the low purchasing power, the people of the Overseas Territories are very well equipped in terms of screens. Many watch movies or series across platforms on their smartphones or on television, as is the case in France. in a Guadeloupe57% of children between the ages of 15 and 39 watch soap operas every day, and 41% in Martinique30% in Guyanacompared to 22% in Hexagonal.
“The behaviors in the Antilles-Guyana are similar, even close to those of urban France, with regard to internal cultural practices. And when it comes to external cultural practices, such as going to the cinema, this is where the gap is dug”defines Antonin Creignou.
For the Indian Ocean, Jamal Makkawi specifies that if “We measure the culture in relation to the Western perspective, and we can conclude that there is less culture in Mayotte, which is clearly not the case. African, Malagasy and other influences mean that Mayotte has grown apart from the West.”