The term is not easy to remember, however, and we may have to get used to talking about ‘topological solitons’. Behind this expression hides an anomaly in space-time, and these folds, or these fluctuations, can be hidden throughout the universe! Its peculiarity is to give the illusion of a black hole. To paraphrase a famous advertising slogan, black holes may look, act, and smell like black holes, but they are not black holes. According to the review physical review dStudying these topological solitons can advance our understanding of quantum physics.
Currently, there is no viable quantum theory of gravity, but one factor leads to string theory. It suggests that all of the particles that make up our universe are actually made up of tiny vibrating strings. Besides their vibrations in three-dimensional space, these strings can warp into additional spatial dimensions on such minute scales that they are almost imperceptible.
Topological solitons do not have an event horizon
However, the authors of this study believe that it is these extra dimensions that will be the cause of these anomalies, which are types of persistent and permanent defects in the structure of space-time. To identify them, scientists studied the behavior of light rays as they passed near one of these solitons. They discovered that solitons would affect light in the same way a black hole would. Light bends around the solitons and thus forms stable orbital rings, and the solitons cast shadows.
So far, nothing distinguishes them from a black hole. Except that by getting close to this fold the topological solitone is smooth and without an event horizon, and that is the point of no return. Which means we can escape from a soliton, unlike a black hole. But to get to the bottom of it, you have to get close…